Chemical weapons attacks in Douma, Syria

Chlorine gas attacks in Douma, Syria

Image and spatial analysis of claims surrounding alleged use of chemical weapons in April 2018

In collaboration with the New York Times


On 7 April 2018, the Syrian city of Douma was allegedly targeted by two chemical weapons attacks. At that time, the city and its surrounding areas had been under siege by the Syrian military since 2013. At least 70 people died in the attacks, according to reports.

Two distinctive yellow canisters, similar to those previously linked to chlorine gas attacks across Syria, were found following the strikes: one on a rooftop balcony near to Al Shuhada square, and the other in a bedroom at an unknown location in the city.

Days later, following the negotiated surrender of the remaining rebel forces in Douma, Russian media were the first to be allowed access to the attack sites. Reporters from RT and TV Zvezda quickly claimed that the attacks had been staged. Both claimed that the canisters found at each location had been carried into place by the rebels, rather than dropped from regime-controlled airspace above the city.

Commissioned by and working closely with the New York Times, Forensic Architecture searched for physical evidence concerning how the canisters had arrived at each scene. We reconstructed the two sites as 3D models using available images and video material. We also reconstructed the canisters as digital objects and analysed the physical traces inscribed on them.

Our analysis supports the assessment that the canisters were dropped from the air. At both sites, we identified a metal harness used to transport the canister, consistent with the aerial delivery of munitions documented elsewhere in Syria. Image and sound analysis revealed further evidence at each site.

In June 2018, the New York Times employed our analysis in a video investigation and an interactive ‘augmented reality’ feature.


We used open-source software called Blender to build 3D models of the attack sites and the canisters themselves. The dimensions of each 3D model were established from satellite imagery and corroborated by architectural details in images captured at ground level.

In order to reconstruct the canisters’ exterior surfaces, we projected multiple images from different angles onto a cylindrical surface. In doing so, we took into account variations in the position and focal length of different cameras, and corroborated details on the canisters’ surfaces across multiple images.

Download the software here, and our models here: Site 1/Site 2/Canisters.

Forensic Architecture team

  • Eyal Weizman (principal investigator)
  • Nick Masterton  (project coordinator)
  • Bob Trafford
  • Grace Quah
  • Ariel Caine
  • Stefan Laxness


Outsourcing Risk

Outsourcing Risk

Investigating the Ali Enterprises Factory Fire on 11 September 2012

For the European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights (ECCHR)

Forensic Architecture was asked by the European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights (ECCHR) to carry out an architectural analysis of the fire that destroyed the Ali Enterprises textile factory on 11 September 2012 in Karachi, Pakistan. Inadequate fire safety measures at the company, a supplier for the German clothes retailer KiK, led to the deaths of 260 factory workers. This investigation uncovers the many ways in which design and management decisions not only failed to prevent injury and casualties, but in fact augmented the death toll.

Our findings have now been submitted to the Regional Court in Dortmund, Germany, where legal action against KiK is ongoing. Since March 2015, the Court has been examining a civil claim against KiK filed by four Pakistanis – one survivor and three relatives of workers killed in the fire – with support from the ECCHR and medico international.


Our analysis of the building and the incident was based on available satellite and ground-level photography, witness sketches, and survivor testimonies, as well as the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) and Joint Investigation Team (JIT) reports that served as material for the case file. As part of our analysis, we constructed a precise, navigable three-dimensional model and a film that illustrates and simulates the path of the fire and studies the building’s vulnerability to it. We also collaborated with other specialists in order to simulate the smoke propagation and the paths that the occupants used to escape the building. We used the crowd and smoke simulations to not only recreate the actual conditions of the fire, but also to test variations in architectural configuration and management of space that is more compliant with the law.

The smoke simulation was made in collaboration with:

Edmund Ang, PhD researcher in advanced computer modelling and fire dynamics, Hazelab at Imperial College London


Prof. Guillermo Rein, Professor of Fire Science at the Department of Mechanical Engineering of Imperial College London, Editor-in-Chief of the journal Fire Technology, and leader of the research group Hazelab at Imperial College London

The crowd simulation was made in collaboration with:

Dr Virginia Alonso-Gutierrez, Crowd Simulation Specialist / Fire safety engineer and researcher at ENEVAC

Forensic Architecture Team

Eyal Weizman (principal investigator)

Christina Varvia (project coordinator)

Nicholas Masterton

Nico Czyz

Sarah Nankivell

Hana Rizvanolli


European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights (ECCHR)

Edmund Ang | Hazelab at Imperial College London

Prof. Guillermo Rein | Hazelab at Imperial College London

Dr. Virginia Alonso-Gutierrez | ENEVAC


Trägt KiK die Verantwortung für 260 Tote? | SPIEGEL TV, 1 February 2018

Torture and Detention in Cameroon

Torture and Detention in Cameroon

The dark side of the U.S.-backed war against Boko Haram

For Amnesty International’s report, Cameroon’s Secret Torture Chambers

Since 2014, Cameroon has been at war with Boko Haram, an armed extremist group responsible for thousands of murders and abductions across the Lake Chad Basin.

Trained and supported by U.S. and European governments, and armed by Israeli private companies, the Cameroonian security forces act with increasing impunity against civilians in the country’s Far North region.

Between 2015 and 2016, Amnesty International collected evidence of over a hundred cases of illegal detention, torture and extra-judicial killing of Cameroonian citizens accused of supporting or being a member of Boko Haram, at around twenty sites across the country.

Using testimony and information supplied by Amnesty International, Forensic Architecture reconstructed two of these facilitiesa regional military headquarters, and an occupied schoolin order to confirm and illustrate the conditions of incarceration and torture described by former detainees.

At the two sites, detainees were kept in degrading and inhumane conditions in dark, crowded, airless cells. All were fed poorly, and most were tortured routinely. Dozens of detainees report witnessing deaths at the hands of Cameroon’s elite military unit, the Rapid Intervention Battalion (BIR), or the Cameroonian intelligence agency, the DGRE.

Forensic Architecture’s research also uncovered the presence of U.S. personnel—military and private contractors—at one of the sites. Using satellite imagery, open-source material, and images gathered from social media, Forensic Architecture demonstrated the proximity of those personnel to sites of incarceration and torture, raising troubling questions for continued American support of Cameroon’s security forces.

A companion article, co-authored with U.S. news website The Intercept, explores some of the further material uncovered in the course of our investigation.

Forensic Architecture team

Eyal Weizman (principal investigator)

Omar Ferwati (project coordinator)

Robert Trafford

Simone Rowat

Nicolas Gourault

Nicholas Masterton

Sarah Nankivell

Christina Varvia

Khan Sheikhoun Crater

Khan Sheikhoun Crater

What can a crater tell us about the weapon that caused it?

On April 4, 2017, a chemical attack in Khan Sheikhoun, Syria was allegedly carried out by pro-government forces.

A crater at the scene of the attack was suspected to be that of a chemical bomb.

Weapons experts require crater dimensions in order to analyse the type of bomb used.

From footage taken on the ground by civilians and journalists, we used photogrammetry techniques to create a 3D model from which we were able to take the required dimensions.

Forensic Architecture team

  • Eyal Weizman (Principal Investigator)
  • Ariel Caine
  • Nicholas Masterton

Collaborating Organizations

  • Human Rights Watch

Al-Jinah Mosque

Al-Jinah Mosque

US airstrike in Al-Jinah, Syria: Architectural assessment confirms building targeted was a functioning mosque; US misidentification possibly the cause for civilian casualties. 




Forensic Architecture has undertaken an architectural analysis of the 16 March 2017 US Airstrike in Al-Jinah, Syria. We conducted interviews with survivors, first responders and with the building’s contractor, and examined available and sourced videos and photographs in order to produce a model of the building both before and after the strike. Our analysis reveals that, contrary to US statements, the building targeted was a functioning, recently built mosque containing a large prayer hall, several auxiliary functions, and the Imam’s residence. We believe that the civilian casualties caused by this strike are partially the result of the building’s misidentification.



The Incident

On the evening of 16 March 2017, a major unilateral US drone strike targeted Sayidina Omar Ibn Al-Khattab Mosque in Al-Jinah, in the province of Aleppo, Syria. According to witnesses, the strike took place when close to 300 people were in the building. Most were gathering for the Isha’a night prayer while 50 others remained in the smaller winter prayer hall where a religious seminar had just finished. The Syrian Civil Defense, also known as the White Helmets, claimed to have recovered the bodies of 38 civilians. Five of them were children. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported 42 dead, but the actual death toll might still be higher.



US Statements

US Central Command claimed responsibility for the airstrike, stating, US forces conducted an airstrike on an Al-Qaeda in Syria meeting on March 16th, killing several terrorists. It wrongly identified the mosque as a partially constructed community meeting hall; wrongly located it in the province of Idlib; and claimed that there was no indication of civilian casualties. The Pentagon has later released an image showing the destroyed mosque and insisting it deliberately did not target the mosque at the left edge of the photo. This statement omits the fact that the targeted building also was a mosque that was in frequent use by locals.

Update (5 May 2017): Despite initial denials from the Pentagon that the building hit was a mosque and that there were civilian casualties, US defense officials told CNN that the results of a US Central Command investigation found that a March US airstrike in northern Syria did, in fact, strike a building that was part of a mosque complex’.

Update (7 June 2017): In a press conference, the U.S. Defense Department told the New York Times that their investigation concluded that the strike was legal and appropriate. U.S. Army Brig. Gen. Paul Bontrager told the Washington Post that the Special Operations Task Force that ordered the strike complied with operational and legal requirements and that they were confident this was a meeting of al-Qaeda members and leaders; this was not a meeting of civilians.

Update (8 August 2017): A United Nations Syria Commission report concludes that US forces lacked an understanding of the actual target, failed to take all feasible precautions to avoid or minimize incidental loss of civilian life, and was in violation of international humanitarian law (p.13).



Forensic Architecture

In engaging with this case, Forensic Architecture focused on the architectural questions raised by the strike: What was the function of the building targeted? What can its architectural characteristics before the strike, and the state of the ruin afterwards, reveal about the incident? Where civilian casualties to be expected in such a building?



Method of Investigation

Forensic Architecture constructed a detailed model of the building before and after the strike. In order to obtain the necessary information to do so, we undertook remote interviews with the mosque’s original contractor, several survivors of the US attack, and the director of the rescue operation Mohammad Halak of the Syrian Civil Defense (White Helmets). We then cross-referenced and confirmed our findings against available photographs, videos and satellite imagery of the building, and further commissioned several photographic surveys on the ground. In the preparation of this report Forensic Architecture was in continuous contact with Bellingcat, who helped provide much of the source imagery, and with HRW, who worked with us to corroborate finds, identify munitions, and locate witnesses. We have also benefited from research and advice provided by Airwars.




Our report, presented as a video (above), confirms that the building was not a ‘partially constructed community meeting hall but a large, functional mosque. The concrete and cinder block building was divided into two parts, north and south, separated by an entrance, a passageway and stairwells. It had two levels, with the upper level still incomplete in parts.

On the ground floor, the south part of the building contained the main prayer hall. The upper floor above it was still incomplete. The south part of the building was damaged in the strike but remained largely intact.

The northern part of the building contained a set of typical auxiliary functions of a mosque: a communal kitchen with a dining area, the toilets, a ritual wash area and the secondary, smaller prayer room, also know as the winter prayer room. A residential flat used by the Imam and his family was located above these functions on the upper floor of the northern part of the building. This part was completely destroyed in the strike.

As a result of the strike, the passageways connecting the two parts of the building were partially blocked by rubble. The stairwells connecting the ground level with the upper floor were also destroyed.

Witness testimonies and photographs of the building taken before the strike show that there were no doors separating the winter prayer room, the main passageway and the wash area. These rooms were accessible, as well as acoustically and visibly exposed.

Given that the building was open to the public, that a large number of local residents were free to move through and around it as they gathered for prayer, and that there was a publically accessible religious lesson with 50 people present, raises doubts regarding the likelihood that an Al-Qaeda meeting was taking place in the building at the time.

The architectural reconstruction has also allowed us to understand the sequence of events that took place in and around the mosque following the strike. The strike began when two bombs completely demolished the northern part of the building. The layout of the rubble in the deep craters is consistent with ground penetrating bombs. In order to escape, worshippers in the main prayer hall in the south part of the building had to climb over the rubble that partially blocked the doorways and passageways and destroyed the stairs. While people exited the building and immediately afterwards they were targeted by further missile strikes. Examining images of munitions remains, Chris Cobb-Smith (who assists Forensic Architecture on weapon analysis), Bellingcat, and HRW’s experts identified the munitions fired outside the mosque as likely to be Hellfire missiles. This is consistent with an anonymous US official who, when speaking to the Washington Post, confirmed that the attack involved two Reaper drones, which fired more than four Hellfire missiles and dropped at least one 500-pound guided bomb in a follow-up strike.

Sharing screens in a Skype call with Halak, the head of the rescue team, we identified the location of the casualties pulled out of the rubble. There were eleven people injured and eight killed as a result of the first two blasts within the northern part of the building, he said. They included the Imam’s wife, Ghassun Makansi, a fourteen-year-old boy named Mohammad Khalad Orabi, and his ten-year-old brother Hassan Omar Orabi. The rest of the casualties were caused by the secondary missile strikes outside the building. We identified traces of missiles on a nearby road and these traces support witness testimonies regarding the secondary strikes on evacuees.



Exchanging architectural plans and photographic analysis with people on the ground we managed to reconstruct a detailed model of the mosque. We believe that the US forces that targeted the building misidentified the nature of the building, leading to high levels of civilian casualties.

-Omar Ferwati, Project Coordinator




While undertaking this investigation, we exchanged information with Human Rights Watch, Bellingcat, and Airwars.

Video footage without voiceover and subtitles as well as the Arabic/English timecoded script is available upon request from Forensic Architecture.

Our video report is also available on our YouTube channel.



This analysis was produced at Forensic Architecture’s own expense.

Forensic Architecture team

  • Eyal Weizman (principal investigator)
  • Christina Varvia
  • Omar Ferwati (project coordinator)
  • Nick Masterton
  • Simone Rowat
  • Stefanos Levidis
  • Sarah Nankivell

M2 Hospital


Pro-Government strikes on M2 hospital, Aleppo, Syria

June-December 2016

According to the Syrian American Medical Society (SAMS), the Omar Bin Abdul Aziz Hospital, also known as M2, was subject to fourteen strikes by pro-government forces from June to December 2016. The strikes were predominantly carried out by air to surface missiles, but also included illegal cluster munitions, barrel bombs, naval mines, and artillery. The hospital sustained significant damage over this six-month period, which rendered it out of service many times. According to the UN, M2 Hospital was one of only three hospitals left in Aleppo by mid-August 2016 that was offering intensive care facilities and the only hospital with a paediatric department.

Photographs and videos taken in and around the hospital facilitated our analysis of some of the consequences of these strikes. Each piece of footage captured only a small part of the building; however, by combining and cross-referencing these clips we were able to reconstruct the architecture of the building as a 3D model and locate the exact sites of the bombings and the resultant damage. The model became the medium through which we could navigate between various images and videos of the incidents in order to produce a cohesive narrative of destruction.

There are a number of CCTV cameras in the hospital that are continuously on, capturing every strike. We located each camera and its orientation in the building in order to integrate footage from the CCTV cameras, handheld videos, and photographs within virtual space. Identifying the location of each video created a tangible connection between these media, which enabled us to verify the position and direction of each camera and situated it in relation to others.

Analysis of one particular video showing workers moving from the inside to the outside of the building was essential in geolocating the hospital, as it revealed a common characteristic of the built environment seen in satellite imagery. The spatial link created as a result of this investigation allowed us to anchor all footage to this exact location and to corroborate the range and multiplicity of the strikes, raising questions about the intent behind this destructive pattern of events.

SAMS estimates that 2016 was the most dangerous year for health workers in Syria. The group verified 73 attacks on medical facilities and personnel in besieged Aleppo between June and December 2016, fourteen of which targeted M2 on the following dates:

3 June 2016

14 June 2016

14 July 2016

16 July 2016

1 August 2016

5 August 2016

11 August 2016

23 September 2016

26 September 2016

28 September 2016

18 November 2016

4 December 2016

14 December 2016

Forensic Architecture team

  • Eyal Weizman (principal investigator)
  • Christina Varvia (project coordinator)
  • Adam Noah (research, 3D modelling, video editing)
  • Nicholas Masterton (image projection, animation, video editing)
  • Samaneh Moafi (analysis, video editing)

Collaborating Organizations

  • Atlantic Council



Umm al-Hiran

Killing in Umm al-Hiran

Northern Negev, 18 January 2017


Shortly before dawn on 18 January 2017, a large police force raided the illegalized Bedouin village of Umm al-Hiran at the northern threshold of the Naqab/Negev Desert in order to demolish several houses. Two people were killed: a Bedouin villager, Yaqub Musa Abu al-Qi’an, and an Israeli policeman, Erez Levi. Immediately after the incident, the Israeli government and police claimed the incident was a ‘terror attack’ by Abu al-Qi’an, and further, that he had links to Daesh (ISIS).

Forensic Architecture’s investigation of the incident, in collaboration with the activist group ActiveStills, helped to expose the falseness of this narrative, and established the veracity of local residents and activist claims that Abu al-Qi’an lost control of his vehicle and ran over Levi only after being shot by Israeli policemen, subsequently left to bleed out and die.

This analysis assisted in forcing the police to retract its narrative of the events, and led to an internal police investigation yet to be concluded.

“..Almost every element of the story police relayed in the hours after the deadly incident has been repudiated in various media reports and investigations. Now, it seems the police claim that Yaqub Musa Abu al-Qi’an was driving with his lights off, which allegedly made police suspect he was carrying out a vehicular attack, is most likely untrue as well…video shows Abu al-Qi’an’s vehicle, after three shots were fired at it, heading down a slope with its headlights on — before striking any police officers.”

Video contradicts more police claims in Umm el-Hiran killing by John Brown, +972  Published February 1, 2017


Forensic Architecture team

  • Ariel Caine (Project Coordinator)
  • Eyal Weizman (Project Coordinator)
  • Oren Ziv
  • Christina Varvia
  • William Winfield
  • Stefan Laxness
  • Daniel Mann
  • Ana Naomi de Sousa
  • Nichola Czyz

Collaborating Organizations

  • Activestills (Keren Manor & Yotam Ronen)





Inside a Syrian Torture Prison

Since 2011 thousands have died in Syria’s prisons and detention facilities. With anyone perceived to be opposed to the Syrian government at risk, tens of thousands of people have been tortured and ill-treated in violation of international law.

In April 2016, Amnesty International and Forensic Architecture travelled to Istanbul to meet five survivors from Saydnaya Prison, near Damascus. In recent years, no journalists or monitoring groups which report publicly have been able to visit the prison or speak with prisoners.

As there are no images of Saydnaya the researchers were dependent on the memories of survivors to recreate what is happening inside.

Using architectural and acoustic modelling, the researchers helped witnesses reconstruct the architecture of the prison and their experiences of detention.  The former detainees described the cells and other areas of the prison, including stairwells, corridors, moving doors and windows, to an architect working with 3D modelling software. The witnesses added objects they remembered, from torture tools to blankets and furniture, to areas where they recalled them being used. The recollections sparked more memories as the model developed.

With next to no daylight, in particular in the solitary cells underground, the prisoners in Saydnaya develop an acute experience of sound. Detainees were made to cover their eyes with their hands whenever a guard entered the room and speaking was prohibited, so prisoners became attuned to the smallest noises.

To capture these auditory memories, researchers developed techniques to solicit “ear-witness testimony” and reconstruct the prison’s architecture through sound.

Witnesses listened to tones of different decibel levels, and were then asked to match them to the levels of specific incidents inside the prison. “Echo profiling” helped to determine the size of spaces such as cells, stairwells and corridors (this involved playing different reverberations and asking witnesses to match them with sounds they remembered hearing in the prison) while “sound artefacts” simulated the noise of doors, locks and footsteps, helping generate further acoustic memories.

Detainees at Saydnaya are generally transferred to the facility after spending months or even years in detention elsewhere. Such transfers often take place following unfair trials at secret military courts. Others arrive at the prison without having seen a judge and do not know the alleged charges against them or how long they will be detained.

The Saydnaya project is part of a wider campaign led by Amnesty International calling on the Syrian government to allow independent monitors into its brutal detention centres. Amnesty is urging Russia and the US “to use their global influence to ensure that independent monitors are allowed in to investigate conditions in Syria’s torture prisons”.

2016 Digital Dozen logo white

Forensic Architecture team

  • Eyal Weizman (principal investigator)
  • Christina Varvia (project coordinator)
  • Ana Naomi de Sousa (video filming, co-directing, co-production)
  • Lawrence Abu Hamdan (interviews, acoustic investigation, sound design)
  • Hania Jamal (interviews, 3D modelling)
  • Nestor Rubio (website design)
  • Stefan Laxness (3D modelling, animation)
  • Pierre-Francois Gerard (3D modelling, 3D panoramas)
  • Simone Rowat (video editing)
  • George Clipp (video editing)
  • Gochan Yildirim (camera)
  • Mihai Meirosu (sound mixing)
  • Yamen Albadin (translation, assistant video editing)
  • Hala Makhlouf (Translation, assistant video editing)
  • Ghias Aljundi (translation)
  • Samaneh Moafi (3D texturing)
  • Hana Rizvanolli (project assistance)
  • Susan Schuppli (advisor)
  • Francesco Sebregondi (advisor)
  • Franc Camps Febrer (design technology contributor)

Collaborating Organizations & Individuals

  • Amnesty International
  • 1635film-istanbul
  • Vasif Kortun/SALT Galata
  • Fiona Gabbert/Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths, University of London
  • Department of Computing, Goldsmiths, University of London

Introduction Video  
The Road to Saydnaya
Jamal Abdou describes the arrival into Saydnaya prison. © Forensic Architecture
The Architecture of Sound
Four former detainees describe their experiences of living in Saydnaya prison through the sounds that they had heard. 
© Forensic Architecture 

Air Strike Atimah

Air Strike Atimah

Syria/Turkey border, 8 March 2015

The case uses clips found in social media websites online to investigate three air strikes on 8 March 2015, near the town of Atimah in Syria and the displaced persons camp of the same name, both abutting the Northern border to Turkey. Shortly after the strikes, several people recorded the incident and upload their videos and images online, both on Youtube and Twitter. The case was reported by Airwars who provided Forensic Architecture with the primary analysis and narrative.  The Forensic Architecture team identified the location of the strikes close to homes and a public building, and only 900m from the edge of the camp where more than 30,000 people are sheltered. No nation has so far claimed responsibility for this attack, though the target seems to be al Qaeda militants operating in the area. The strike reportedly killed six civilians

Forensic Architecture team

  • Eyal Weizman (Principal Investigator)
  • Christina Varvia (Video Editing, Spatial Analysis)
  • Chris Woods (Voiceover)

Collaborating Organizations

  • Airwars (Primary Research & Analysis)

Rafah: Black Friday


Report on the war operations of 1-4 August 2014, in Rafah, Gaza

The Black Friday report is a collaboration between Forensic Architecture and Amnesty International. It aims to provide a detailed reconstruction of the events in Rafah, Gaza, from 1-4 August 2014, based primarily on material found on social media. 

Because our investigation team was denied access to Gaza, Forensic Architecture developed a number of techniques aimed to reconstruct the events from hundreds of images and videos recorded by professional and citizen journalists. The images were thereafter located in a 3D model of Rafah.  This resulted in the Image Complex, a device that allowed us to explore the spatial and temporal connections between the various sources and reconstruct the events as they unfolded. 

Forensic Architecture has also located witness testimonies, delivered after the war, within this 3D model and corroborated the reported events with other audio-visual material. Where the metadata of image material was missing or inadequate, we used time indicators such as observed shadows or bomb clouds to locate sources in space and time.

The report is a part of a long term collaboration between Forensic Architecture and Amnesty International and has also resulted in the Gaza Platform.

Forensic Architecture team

  • Eyal Weizman (principal investigator)
  • Christina Varvia (research, methodology, analysis, animation)
  • Nick Axel (research, coordination, interactive report, web editor)
  • Francesco Sebregondi (project management, cartography)
  • Gustav A. Toftgaard (cartography, 3D modelling)
  • Camila E. Sotomayor (research, media analysis, coordination)
  • Vere Van Gool (research, media analysis, 3D modelling)
  • Dorette Panagiotopoulou (3D modelling)
  • Rosario Güiraldes (cartography)
  • Hania Halabi (research)
  • Jacob Burns (research)
  • Susan Schuppli (advisor)

External Collaborators

  • Shourideh C. Molavi (fieldwork, legal research)
  • Jamon Van Den Hoek (remote sensing)
  • Ana Naomi de Souza (video production, voiceover)
  • Mohammed Abdullah (fieldwork)
  • Kent Klich (fieldwork, photography)
  • John Pines (satellite image analysis)
  • Chris Cobb-Smith and Marc Garlasco (advice on military analysis)
  • Felix Kalmenson and Eric Salitsky (3D modelling volunteers)
  • Mahmoud AbuRahma
  • Angela Gaff
  • Jonathan Littell

Workshop with UCL Bartlett MA Urban Design

  • Adrian Lahoud (Director)
  • Nick Axel (course convener, coordination)
  • Camila E. Sotomayor (coordination)
  • Platon Issaias, Samaneh Moafi, Sam Jacoby, Godofredo Pereira (tutors)
  • Nasser Alemadi, Yuting Chen, Prutha Chiddarwar, Luxi Deng, Ni Ding, Kailun Fan, Yan Geng, Stella Habipi, Shan He, Shucheng Huang, Yanti Jiang, Ziyang Jiang, Yongzhou Liang, Zhongge Lin, Bingjie Liu, Bingqian Liu, Liting Lu, Rebecca Macklis, Nadia Mendez Guevara, Akarachai Padlom, Androulla Papadopoulou, Longning Qi, Yuanyuan Qiu, Eleftherios Sergios, Jana Shamseddine, Evdokia Spyropoulou, Orn-Uma Sukhaboon, Sihan Wan, Haochen Wang, Xinqi Wang, Zeqing Wang, Jian Wang, Aurelien Wasem, Zhiwen Wei, Dan Wu, Lumeng Xiao, Yiwen Xu, Mengyi Xu, Qinhe Yi, Bolin Zhang, Yulun Zheng, Hang Zou (students)

Collaborating Organizations

  • Amnesty International
  • Al Mezan Centre for Human Rights
  • Amnesty International Israel


The Strike on Al Tannur Neighbourhood.  
Methodologies developed for the analysis of footage in Rafah, 1 August 2014 include: geo-synching, plume analysis, shadow analysis, metadata correction, the image complex. © Forensic Architecture

Remote Sensing - Crater Detection
A video animation demonstrating the methodology used by Forensic Architecture to detect the craters left by shelling and bombing. © Forensic Architecture. Based upon an NDVI analysis of Pléiades satellite images taken on 30 July 2014 at 11.40am and 14 August 2014 at 11.54am. © CNES 2014, Distribution AIRBUS DS, all rights reserved.
Remote Sensing - Tank Paths
A video that reconstructs the paths Israeli tanks took in their incursions into the Gaza Strip during the conflict in 2014. © Forensic Architecture. Based upon a Panchromatic remote sensing analysis of Pléiades and satellite images taken on 30 July 2014 at 11.40am and 14 August 2014 at 11.54am & Landsat 8 satellite images taken on 30 July 2014 and 8 August 2014. © CNES 2014, Distribution AIRBUS DS, Landsat 8, all rights reserved.

Close-ups of a Pléiades satellite image, taken on 1 August 2014 at 11.39am, reveal Israeli tanks as they move into position near Salah al-Din Street, Rafah. They are here marked within the boxes drawn with red-dotted lines. © Forensic Architecture and CNES 2014, Distribution AIRBUS DS, all rights reserved.

A Pléiades satellite image of eastern Rafah, taken on 14 August 2014 at 11.50am, is marked with air strike craters (large red dots) and artillery craters (small red dots) and the resulting intensity of attacks (shades of red). © CNES 2014, Distribution AIRBUS DS, all rights reserved.